- Central Bank Raises Prime to 7.5%
- SkyUp is dropping from its summer schedule
Surprising analysts, the Central Bank raised Ukraine’s prime rate by a full percentage point, to 7.5%. By bringing Ukraine’s key rate back to where it was one year ago, the National Bank of Ukraine said it wants to tamp down inflation.
The Central Bank revised its 2020 inflation forecast to 8%, from 7%. After inflation hit 8.5% yoy last month, the National Bank of Ukraine now predicts that inflation will peak at 9.6% in the third quarter. It will recede steadily, hitting 5% for 2021, the bank has predicted.
The National Bank of Ukraine also downgraded its forecast for real GDP growth in 2021 to 3.8%, from 4.2%. “The introduction of new quarantine restrictions has led to the suppression of business activity,” the bank said. “The effect of last year’s low harvests affected the indicators of agriculture, food processing and cargo turnover.” After a 2.8% drop during January-February, growth should return in the current second quarter, the bank predicts. The World Bank also predicts 2021 GDP growth of 3.8%.
According to Kyrylo Shevchenko, the Governor of the Central Bank, two new factors are degrading economic performance. “The low rate of vaccination in Ukraine creates an additional risk of future economic losses,” he said. Less than one percent of Ukraine’s population has received a first shot of a coronavirus vaccine. Russia’s big military buildup is also increasing uncertainty. He said: “After the news of the beginning of the escalation, we felt additional demand from non-residents to buy foreign currency.”
With coronavirus lockdowns gripping much of Europe, especially Germany, SkyUp is dropping from its summer schedule of 15 flights to the EU, reported Avianews. Almost half of the flights were from Kyiv Boryspil to Germany: Berlin, Hanover, Nuremberg, Hamburg, Dusseldorf, Munich and Stuttgart. Other routes that were discontinued include: Kyiv to Copenhagen, Stockholm and Ostrava, and from Lviv to Alicante, Lodz, Bergamo, Paris and Prague.
- Arcelor Launches $1 billion Investment in ‘Green Steel’
- Investors Split Over War Odds
- Zelenskiy Meets Macron in Paris
- Kyiv’s Corona Lockdown Extended to April 30
Lakshmi Mittal, chairman of ArcelorMittal, told President Zelenskiy that his Ukraine unit is launching a ‘Steel Billion’ program, a nearly $1 billion investment to bring the steel maker in compliance with EU ‘green steel’ rules, according to the president’s website. By the end of 2023, ArcelorMittal Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine’s largest integrated steel company, plans to complete the modernization of its coke-chemical, sinter and blast-furnace production, Mittal said. Zelenskiy, a native of Kryvyi Rih, said: “Investments in the Ukrainian economy and the environment are a positive signal for all investors.”
Ukrainian companies are interested in contracts to rebuild areas in Azerbaijan damaged during the war last fall in Nagorno Karabakh, Ukraine’s Infrastructure Minister Vladislav Krikliy told Azerbaijan’s Energy Minister Parviz Shahbazov in Baku, reports Azernews. After Russia, Ukraine is Azerbaijan’s second largest trading partner of the countries of the former Soviet Union. Last year, Ukraine exported to Azerbaijan $418 million and imported from Azerbaijan $353 million.
Timofei Milovanov was appointed head of the new National Investment Fund of Ukraine, Vasily Mokan, representative of the Cabinet of Ministers in the Rada, wrote on his Facebook page. Milovanov, who served as Zelenskiy’s first Economy Ministry, will be charged with setting up the Natsinvestfond, Established two weeks ago, the Fund has as its goals: attracting major investments, promoting Ukraine investment funds, and promoting international economic cooperation.
President Zelenskiy submitted to the Rada a bill to liquidate the Kyiv District Administrative Court, headed by controversial judge Pavlo Vovk, reports the Kyiv Post. Among foreign and national investors, the court was widely seen as a bazaar where decisions went to the highest bidder. Last July, Vovk and other judges of the court were charged with organized crime, abuse of power, bribery and unlawful interference with government officials. Last week, detectives arrested Vovk’s brother Yury Zontov, an employee of the Foreign Intelligence Service. In a raid on Zontov’s apartment, detectives confiscated $5 million in bricks of cash: $3.7 million, €840,000, £20,000, and 100 Israeli shekels.
Ukraine’s international bonds and the Russian ruble rallied on the prospect of a Biden-Putin summer summit, reports Reuters. But the lengthy, London-based story starts: “Fund managers are trimming exposure to Russia and Ukraine on fears that years of tensions could finally erupt into outright war, bringing economic ruin for Ukraine and more sanctions on Russia.” On Ukraine, Reuters notes: “The volume of local bond holdings held by foreign portfolio investors has been declining since late March.”
The massing of Russian troops on Ukraine’s borders has weakened demand for Ukrainian domestic government bonds, or IGLBs, Danylo Hetmantsev, head of the Rada Committee on Finance, Tax and Customs Policy, wrote after hryvnia bond auction sold only the equivalent of $7.7 million. Writing on his Telegram channel, Hetmantsev predicted: “As soon as the situation at the border stabilizes, investors will start buying IGLBs again.”
President Zelenskiy meets French President Emmanuel Macron in Paris. The topic is French support against Russia’s troop buildup on Ukraine’s borders. With Germany’s Chancelor Angela Merkel retiring this fall, Macron is expected to become the EU’s senior leader.
Despite Covid, France-Ukraine trade remained strong last year, falling slightly to $2.1 billion. French brands account for about 20% of new car sales in Ukraine, with Renault the most popular. Last year, France exported $180 million worth of wine to Ukraine. After Ukraine lifted import duties on EU wine in January, this figure is to grow. About 180 French companies operate in Ukraine, controlling $1.1 billion in foreign investment, the Kyiv Post reported last week in its annual France-Ukraine edition.
Ukraine’s exports of goods hit $8.5 billion, up 4.5% in January-February, compared to the same period in 2020. Imports only increased by 0.5% to $8.73 billion. As a result, the $256 million trade deficit was slightly less than half the level of last year, reports the State Statistic Service.
The top three export markets were: China – $ 1.1 billion +44%; Poland – $648 million – unchanged; and Turkey – $552.1 million +18%.
The top three sources of imports were: China – $1.4 billion + 4%; Germany – $758 million -15.4%; and Russia – $731 million -10.%.
Ukraine’s third coronavirus wave may be receding, Health Minister Maksym Stepanov wrote on Facebook. Hospitalization rates are declining and Ivano-Frankivsk and Zakarpattia are no longer considered “red” zones. He reported that last Tuesday “was the first day when the number of people discharged from hospitals exceeded the number of hospitalized people.” However, he added Kyiv city and the regions of Kyiv, Lviv and Poltava “continue to be in the ‘red’ zone of increased epidemic danger and the situation there remains extremely difficult.”
Kyiv’s lockdown has been extended for another two weeks – to Friday, April 30. “We don’t have a choice,” Mayor Klitschko said at a briefing. “Otherwise, the medical system won’t handle the load, and there will be even more deaths.” Schools and shopping centers will remain closed. Restaurants will operate on a take-out basis only. The Metro will only take passengers with special permits. With traffic jams clogging streets at rush hours, employers are asked to encourage employees to work remotely from home.
Kyiv’s Metro subway system is decreasing the frequency of trains during the lockdown. The city has issued 500,000 passes for use on public transport, including the subways. Subway ridership is now about 200,000 on a weekday. In March, prior to the lockdown, it was 1 million. Prior to the pandemic, in 2019, it was 1.5 million. Last year, the system lost $22 million due to lost fares.
Special mass transit permits have been distributed as follows: healthcare and pharmaceutical – 152,000; production and sale of food, defense industry, mechanical engineering – 104,000; government executives – 81,000; military, police, judiciary – 72,000; housing and communal services – 46,000; press – 4,700; and religious – 2,700. Mayor Klitschko told reporters: “We cannot issue such special tickets to everyone. Why else did we impose strict restrictions?”
- Prospects of Biden-Putin Summit Ease Investor Worries
- War Clouds Hit Exchange Rates, Bond Yields
- Central Bank to Raise Prime
- Astarta’s Sugar Profits Jump
- Belgians to Supply Ship Engines to Ukrainian Danube
The news of President Biden’s invitation to President Putin to a bilateral summit caused the ruble to immediately strengthen, to 76 to the dollar, from 77. The prospect of a summit may also ease investor worries Russia positioning of 40,000 troops near Ukraine’s eastern border.
Hours before the Biden-Putin telephone call, Bloomberg published a story noting that yields on ruble bonds had hit their highest level in a year. Asserting that US financial sanctions were likely, the story was headlined: “Putin’s Ukraine Gambit Turns Debt Sanctions Into a Real Threat.”
The Finance Ministry trumpeted the news that the yield on its 6-month bond dropped 52 basis points, to 8.07%. Of the $17.8 million put up for auction, only 28% were sold. The Ministry reported that 1-year bond sold unchanged with a yield of 10.75%, the 18-month bond sold also unchanged with a yield 11.1%. The two-year dollar bond sold with a yield of 3.9%. Dollar bond sales totaled $49 million, 86% of total sales yesterday.
International investors sold the equivalent of $100 million in government hryvnia bonds last week, ICU has reported. The Kyiv investment house wrote: “Sentiment changed at the end of the week when J.P. Morgan announced that it was including the Ukrainian note due 2025 to the watch list to be added to the GBI-EM [Government Bond Index-Emerging] index.”
Before the news broke of the proposed Biden-Putin summit in late afternoon London time, the yield on Ukraine’s dollar bond due in 2032 reached 7.67%, the highest since November and taking the 3-day increase to 34 bps. Similarly, the yield on 2026-dollar debt climbed 12 bps to 6.78%. Ukraine’s GDP warrants drop 0.3c to 99.9c on the dollar, trading below par for the first time since November, (Bloomberg).
According to a Reuters poll of analysts, the Central Bank is expected to raise its prime interest rate in order to catch up with inflation. Of the 16 analysts, 10 foresee the rate rising to 7% from the current level of 6.5%. Three expect an increase to 7.5%. March inflation jumped to 8.5% yoy, which was fueled by food and energy price hikes. The National Bank of Ukraine raised the interest rate 50 basis points at its last meeting, in March.
Dragon Capital has predicted an interest rate hike to 7.5% and another increase to 8% at the Central Bank’s Monetary Policy Board’s June 17 meeting. In a note to clients, Dragon predicts that inflation will peak in June at 9.8% and will end the year at 7.5%.
The Rada should approve reforms demanded by the IMF by July 2021, allowing for the resumption of IMF financing in September, Oleh Ustenko, the President’s economic adviser, told RBC-Ukraine in an extensive interview. “Amendments will be made to the law on banks and the law on the National Bank, which will increase its independence,” Ustenko said. He warned that it would be costly for the Finance Ministry to go to the Eurobond market without an IMF deal. He said of bond yields: “Without the IMF, it will be 1-2 percentage points higher.”
In a surprise switch, the Rada failed to repeal the law unblocking large-scale privatization. Only 49 of the needed 226 deputies voted in favor of selling state companies estimated to be worth more than $10 million. Oddly, the Rada voted for the bill on March 30. Large state companies generally lose money, largely due to thievery by management.
Off the books transactions account for half of Ukraine’s GDP, Danylo Hetmantsev, estimated the Chairman of the Rada’s Committee on Finance, Tax and Customs Policy, in an interview with Ukrinform, the state-owned news agency. “I believe that the size of the shadow economy is half of GDP,” he said. The exact figure no one can say, no research can be reliable, because the ‘shadow’ cannot be counted.”
“How Ukraine Lost it Investment Paradise,” headlined an article in the National Interest that blames the nation’s plummeting foreign investment on “Ukrainian authorities [falling] into the same trap of keeping their system semi-reformed, leaving Ukraine in economic and social stagnation.” Noting that foreign direct investment fell from $4.5 billion in 2019 to $400 million last year, the authors charge: “Ukraine’s top echelon has been sliding back to corruption after short reboot attempts undertaken during fall 2019—winter 2020.” The piece was written by Oleksiy Honcharuk, Ukraine’s Prime Minister until one year ago and Roman Waschuk, the Canadian Ambassador to Ukraine until 2019.
Agroholding Astarta, Ukraine’s largest sugar producer, increased its EBITDA by 45.6% to €113.4 million. The company increased its sugar EBITDA 9-fold, to €80.2 million, by selling one unprofitable sugar mill and by cutting sugar exports by 29%. Sugar prices were higher in Ukraine, where the company has a 20% share of the market. Astarta has five sugar factories, a land bank of 220,000 hectares, dairy farms with 22,000 head of cattle, seven elevators, a biogas complex, and a soybean processing plant.
Concorde Capital’s Alexander Paraschiy wrote: “The company’s EBITDA and net leverage are the best in the last three years, making it one of the least risky farming and food companies in the Ukrainian universe.”
Anglo-Belgian Corporation and Ukrainian Danube Shipping Company have signed a letter of intent for a €90 million purchase of hybrid fuel engines for 33 tugs. The engines, which can run on diesel, hydrogen, or methanol, comply with EU standards and would allow Ukrainian Danube continued access to the Danube and, potentially, the Rhine.
The new engines account for half of a €170 million upgrade of the state company’s fleet. Work is to be done at the Ukrainian Danube’s Kiliya shipyard, about 50 km down river from the company headquarters in Izmail, Odesa. The company is talking to the EBRD and the Belgian government about ‘green loan’ financing.
- Summer Gift: $2.7 billion from the IMF
- Bonds for Roads and Rail
- UZ Flips from Profit to Big Loss
- Black Sea Gatekeepers? Chinese to Buy a Bridge over the Bosporus
Ukraine may receive $2.7 billion from the IMF this summer under a plan by the International Monetary Fund Managing Director, Kristalina Georgieva, to allocate $650 billion from international reserves to restore the world economy after the coronavirus crisis. Unlike the conventional IMF programs this money would not have to be paid back. The National Bank of Ukraine Governor, Kyrylo Shevchenko, announced the possible windfall following a meeting with Alfred Kammer, the Director of the IMF’s European Department.
Alfa-Bank Ukraine wrote: “An easy $2.7 billion from the IMF might arrive in 2021…This allocation might be very helpful as Ukraine faces its next FX debt payment peak in September ($3.1 billion). However, such ‘windfall cash’ might finally erode the country’s motivation to proceed with the Stand-by Arrangement.”
Separately, Shevchenko told Interfax-Ukraine last week that Ukraine should receive two tranches from last June’s $5 billion IMF Stand-by Agreement “given the longer course of negotiations.” Ukraine has been in on-again, off-again talks with the IMF since last fall. He said that he hoped that the Rada will pass legislation in coming weeks so that Ukraine will meet the IMF’s compliance requirements. Failing that, he said: “These funds can be replaced by the placement of Eurobonds. We know that the IMF is not primarily about money, but about trust in the country. a strong signal to investors.”
With the ‘Big Construction’ program running up government debt this summer, the government has approved extending state guarantees Ukravtodor for the hryvnia equivalent of $357 million in loans or bonds. Separately, the state highway agency has set up a unit to prepare for the offering this summer of state-guaranteed Ukravtodor hryvnia bonds to foreign and domestic investors.
Ukrzaliznytsia plans to issue a Eurobond this year, to partially cover for a disastrous 2020. Largely due to the coronavirus, a $110 million profit in 2019 turned into a $430 million loss in 2020, according to the State Railroad’s recently released Annual Report. Revenues from freight transportation were down 10% yoy to $220 million in 2020. Passenger revenues dropped 58% yoy to $148 million.
UZ has 250,000 employees, “while a modern railroad of this size could probably manage with around 120,000” Adomas Audickas, a member of the railroad’s Supervisory Board, wrote in an Atlantic Council essay: “How to Reform Ukrainian Railways.” While the railroad has lost 75% of its trans cargo due to Russian measures, internal rates undermine the UZ’s finances. He wrote: “Grain shippers pay 40% higher tariffs than shippers of iron ore. Reforming tariff-setting practices must be a priority.”
Each ton of iron ore “is transported with a 19% loss for Ukrzaliznytsia,” Sergii Leshchenko, another UZ board member, (Kyiv Post). Once an UZ freight train carrying iron crosses into Poland or Slovakia, “the tariff for ore transportation increases,” he wrote. “In Poland, it increases 2.5 times. In Slovakia — more than four times.” Blaming Rinat Akhmetov’s metal companies for lobbying for low tarrifs, he concluded that UZ loses $288 million “annually due to unfairly low tariffs for iron ore transportation.”
UZ has set a goal to raise cargo this year by 3%, to 314 million tons, and revenue by 10%, to $2.6 billion, the company reported last month.
Concorde Capital’s Alexander Paraschiy has commented on this issue: “Any change in Ukrainian Railways’ tariff policy that leads to an effective increase of cargo rates usually meets fierce resistance from large business customers (especially top customers, the companies related to Rinat Akhmetov like Metinvest and DTEK) this means that the likelihood of the company’s changing its tariff policy is not high.”
Volodymyr Zhmak is suing UZ and the Cabinet of Ministers for firing him last month. The reasons for his firing were not made public. Ivan Yuryk, the new Acting Head of the Company, is the 11th head in seven years. “The release of the chairman of the board six months after the appointment and further chaos with the acting head of the company will definitely worsen the state of UZ,” Viktor Dovhan, a former Deputy Infrastructure Minister, told the Center for Transportation Strategies.
Ukraine’s second multimodal terminal – moving containers from trucks to trains – has opened in Klevan, Rivne region. This ‘dry port’ on a 10-hectare lot is designed to handle 2,000 containers a month. Due to the lack of such cargo hubs, 80% of containers in Ukraine move by trucks on highways. Although growing fast, containers account for only 1% of all rail traffic as measured by weight. In Europe, containers account for 45% of rail cargo.
Ten years after the first China-EU freight train trip, 3,345 freight trains were sent from China to the EU in the first three months of 2021, reported Xinhua. Freight traffic was up 12% yoy to 920 million tons.
UZ aims to handle one Chinese train a day – either in transit to Eastern Europe or to Kyiv’s Darnytsa rail yard. In January-February, 27 Chinese transit trains rolled across Ukraine and four more went to Darnytsa.
Six Chinese companies plan to pay $700 million to buy 51% of a road and rail bridge over Turkey’s Bosporus, report Russian Railways Partner. Opened five years ago, Yavuz Sultan Selim is a toll bridge with eight lanes for cars and trucks and two rail tracks. Located at the Black Sea entrance to the Bosporus, the 2.1 km long suspension bridge is the third highest in the world, built to allow freighter traffic below. Included in the deal is the bridge’s access highway, the Northern Ring Road. The Chinese consortium is composed of: China Merchants Expressway, CMU, Zheijiang Expressway, Jiangsu Expressway, Sichuan Expressway, and Anhui Expressway.
- Turkey Seeks More Trade Defense Industry Ties with Ukraine
- Inflation Jumps to 8.5%
- GDP Shrinks in Jan/Feb
Pressured by Russia’s military threats against Ukraine, the Presidents of Turkey and Ukraine met for a three-hour meeting in Istanbul and agreed to speed up reaching an agreement on a free trade pact between the two countries. The cross-Black Sea pact is designed to double bilateral trade to $10 billion. To put an end to a decade of official talks, both countries agreed to an ‘audit’ of all problem issues with an eye to signing this year.
“Ukraine turns to Turkey as Russia threatens full-scale war,” reported Al Jazeera. Noting that it was President Zelenskiy’s second visit in six months to Turkey, the report said: “Ankara views Ukraine as a crucial buffer against Russia and has been a strong advocate for its acceptance into the NATO alliance.” Highlighting the wide spectrum of defense industry cooperation, the articles noted: “Turkey is working with Ukrainian companies to develop diesel engines for its fifth-generation fighter jet and main battle tank.”
Defense industry cooperation was discussed during a parallel meeting between the Turkish Defence Minister, Hulusi Akar, and his Ukrainian counterpart, Andriy Taran. At the time of Zelenskiy’s last visit to Turkey last October, Vadim Nozdriya, the General Manager of Ukrspetseskport, announced that Ukraine would like to purchase 48 Bayraktar TB2 combat drones. The drones would be jointly produced by Ukraine and Turkey. In 2019, Ukraine bought six Bayraktar TB2 drones, three ground control stations and 200 high-precision missiles from Turkey in a $69 million deal.
Unhappy with this visit, Russian officials discussed suspending Russian tourism to Turkey, reported the Vtimes in Moscow. Last year, approximately 7 million Russian tourists visited Turkey. The number of tourists has fluctuated, depending on Moscow’s mood. In 2016, 850,000 Russian tourists visited Turkey. Last year, Turkey was visited by 1 million Ukrainians, a number expected to increase this year.
Timothy Ash writes from London: “The message from the Kremlin is stay out of Ukraine, don’t supply drones as you did to Azerbaijan, or else we will ban Russian tourist visits to Turkey which earns $3-4 billion export earner for Turkey.”
Ukrainian Motor Sich engines are to power Turkey’s planned heavy attack helicopter ATAK-2 that is being developed by Turkish Aerospace Industries, or TAI. With the Ukrainian 2,500 hp turboshaft engines, the attack helicopters will be produced by 2023, said TAI President Temel Kotil, according to Defense Express.
In a $1 billion deal, the largest for Turkey’s defense industry, Ukraine will purchase four Ada class ‘stealth’ corvettes for patrolling the Black Sea. The first ship is to be built in Turkey and the next three at Mykolaiv’s Okean shipyard, reported the shipyard. The deal was signed last December by Ukrainian Defense Minister Taran and Turkey’s top defense procurement official, Ismail Demir.
This import deal damages Ukraine’s already ailing shipbuilding industry, complained Anatoly Kinakh, the President of the Ukrainian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs. “The first ship will be manufactured there (with the participation of Ukrainian specialists),” he wrote. “The next ones will be delivered to Ukraine almost ready-made, with additional equipment at our shipyards.” All-Ukrainian production, he said “would allow attracting more than 10,000 workers in various branches of the defense industry complex for 8-9 years.”
On the civilian side, Turkey’s government-backed housing agency, TOKI, will build 500 houses in Ukraine for Crimean Tatars displaced from the Russia-controlled peninsula, Turkish and Ukrainian officials announced in Istanbul. The houses will be built in Kyiv, Kherson and Mykolaiv, said Murat Kurum, Turkey’s Environment and Urbanization Minister. TOKI has undertaken the construction of houses after natural disasters in Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Aceh, Indonesia.
Ukraine ranked second worldwide for projects undertaken by Turkish construction companies in 2020, said Burak Pehlivan, the Chairman of the International Turkish-Ukrainian Business Association, (Kyiv Post). Boosted by the Zelenskiy government’s ‘Big Construction’ program, Turkish companies have undertaken 2000 construction projects worth more than $7 billion since the 1990s. In 2020, a year of reduced cross border investment, Turkey was the largest source of new foreign investment, investing $400 million in Ukraine. Currently 700 Turkish companies work in Ukraine, nurturing a total foreign investment of $3.5 billion.
Ukraine’s March inflation íncreased to 8.5% yoy, setting the stage for an interest rate hike this Thursday at the scheduled meeting of the National Bank of Ukraine’s Monetary Policy Board. According to the State Statistics Service inflation has climbed steadily recording these rates: December – 5%; January 6.1%; and 7.5% in February. The Central Bank has predicted that 2021 inflation will be 7%.
Alfa-Bank Ukraine’s Oleskiy Blinov wrote: “As for [this] week’s monetary decision, we think that a 100 bps rate hike (to 7.5%) is the most likely. That might not be the final move in this hiking season.”
Energy prices increased by inflation, with natural gas rising by 64% and electricity up 37%. Food prices increased by 10%. Leaders were food items produced in Ukraine: bread +14%; fruit +14.5%; sunflower oil +48.5%; sugar +65%; and eggs +109%.
Driving up egg prices, Oleg Bakhmatyuk, owner of Avangard, the nation’s largest egg producer, has halved egg production over the last 18 months, to 170 million eggs a month. He has blamed the criminal prosecution by the National Anti-Corruption Bureau, saying it has cut him off from bank loans needed to run his Ukrlandfarming agribusiness.
The economy contracted by 2.8% in January and February, compared to the first two months of last year, estimated the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade. Except for retail trade, all sectors were down. Consensus forecasts put Ukraine’s 2021 GDP growth at 4%. These forecasts were made before the April coronavirus lockdown in Kyiv and half of the regions. War jitters about Russia’s military threats also may dampen investment.
The National Securities and Stock Market Commission last week revoked the license of Ukrainian Stock Exchange. Founded in 1991, the Ukrainian Stock Exchange, or UFB, was the first stock exchange in Ukraine. The reason cited was: “failure to carry out…professional activity on the stock market during the year.”
JCC Ukraine Chapter Webinar
“Ukraine’s Agriusiness: New Opportunities”
June 17, 2021 (14:00-15:00 CET)
Speaker: Gebhard Rogenhofer, Wurzelwerk GR GmbH
Moderation: Sven Henniger, Partner, Henniger Winkelmann Consulting
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